Add a Comment to this Note (list members only)
From: bruces@well.com (Bruce Sterling)
Dead medium: Dead computational platforms, dead mainframes, and their dates
Source(s): Bruce P. Watson, Dr Kenneth E. Knight, assorted scrounging on World Wide Web "computer history" sites
abacus (circa 500BC Egypt)
saun-pan computing tray (200 AD China)
soroban computing tray (200 AD Japan)
Napier's bones (1617 Scotland),
William Oughtred's slide rule (1622 England)
Blaise Pascal's calculating machine (1642 France)
Gottfried Liebniz's calculating machine (1673)
Charles Babbage's Difference Engine (never built) (1822 England)
Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine (never built) (1833 England)
Scheutz mechanical calculator (1855 Sweden)
Hollerith tabulating machine (1890)
Vannevar Bush differential analyzer (1925 USA)
Konrad Zuse's Z1 computer (1931 Germany)
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (1939 USA)
Turing's Colossus Mark 1 (1941 England)
Zuse's Z3 computer (1941 Germany)
Colossus Mark II (1944 England)
IBM ASCC Mark I (1944 USA)
BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer) (1946-1949 USA)
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) (1946 USA)


Dead Mainframes
afcno KEKno Manufacturer Computer Name Introduced
----- ----- -------------------------- ----------
* Zuse Z4 (mechanical relays) 1939
* Atanasoff/ABC Oct 1939 ?
* Colossus Mark I (declassified 1970) 1943
1 Harvard Mark I 1944
* Colossus Mark II (declassified 1970) 1944
2 Bell Labs Computer Model IV Mar 1945
3 ENIAC (first vacuum tube) 1946
4 Bell Labs Computer Model V Late 1947
5 Harvard Mark II Sep 1948
6 BINAC (first stored program?) Aug 1949
* Cambridge Edsac (first stored program?) 1949
* IBM SSEC 1949?
7 IBM CPC 1949
8 Bell Computer Model III 1949
9 National Bureau of Standards SEAC May 1950
10 MIT Whirlwind I Dec 1950
11 Eckert-Mauchley UNIVAC 1101 Era 1101 Dec 1950
12 IBM 607 1950
13 AVDIAC 1950
* National Physics Labs/ACE May 1950
14 Harvard ADEC Jan 1951
15 Burroughs Lab Calculator Jan 1951
16 NBS SWAC Mar 1951
17 Eckert-Mauchley UNIVAC I Mar 1951
18 ONR Relay Computer May 1951
19 Fairchild Computer Jun 1951
* General Electric 100 ERMA 1951
20 National 102 Jan 1952
21 IAS Mar 1952
22 MANIAC I Mar 1952
23 ORDVAC Mar 1952
24 EDVAC Apr 1952
25 Teleregister Spec Purpose Dig Data Jun 1952
26 U. of Illinois ILLIAC Sep 1952
27 Elcom 100 Dec 1952
28 Harvard Mark IV 1952
29 ALWAC II Feb 1953
30 Logistics Era Mar 1953
31 OARAC Apr 1953
32 ABC May 1953
33 RAYDAC Jul 1953
34 MIT Whirlwind II Jul 1953
35 National 102A Sum 1953
36 Consolidated Eng. Model 36-101 Sum 1953
37 Jaincomp C Aug 1953
38 FLAC Sep 1953
39 Oracle Sep 1953
40 Sperry Rand UNIVAC 1103 Sep 1953
41 UNIVAC 1102 Dec 1953
42 UDEC 1 Dec 1953
43 National Cash Register NCR 107 1953
44 MINIAC Dec 1953
45 IBM 701 (first comm large scale) 1953
46 IBM 604 1953
47 AN/UJQ-2(YA-1) 1953
48 Rand JOHNNIAC Mar 1954
* Bell Labs LEPRECHAUN ????
49 DYSEAC Apr 1954
50 Elecom 120 May 1954
51 Circle Jun 1954
52 Burroughs 204 & 205 Jul 1954
53 MODAC 5014 Jul 1954
54 ORDFIAC Jul 1954
55 Electro Data Datatron Aug 1954
56 MODAC 404 Sep 1954
57 Lincoln Memory Test Dec 1954
58 TIM II Dec 1954
59 UC Berkeley CALDIC 1954
* CSC-46 1954
60 UNIVAC 60 & 120 Nov 1954
61 IBM 650 Nov 1954
62 WISC 1954
63 NCR 303 1954
64 Mellon Inst. Digital Computer 1954
65 IBM 610 1954
66 ALWAC III 1954
67 IBM 702 Feb 1955
68 Monrobot III Feb 1955
69 NORC Feb 1955
70 MINIAC II Mar 1955
71 Monrobot V Mar 1955
72 UDEC II Oct 1955
73 Radio Corp of Amer RCA BIZMAC I & II Nov 1955
74 PENNSTAC Nov 1955
75 Technitral 180 1955
76 National 120D 1955
77 Monrobot VI 1955
78 MODAC 410 1955
79 MIDAC 1955
80 Elcom 125 1955
81 Burroughs E 101 1955
82 Bendix G15 Aug 1955
83 ALWAC III E Nov 1955
84 J.B. Rea Co. Readix Feb 1956
85 IBM 705, I, II Mar 1956
86 UNIVAC 1103 A Mar 1956
87 AF CRC Apr 1956
88 Guidance Function Apr 1956
89 IBM 704 Apr 1956
90 IBM 701 (CORE) 1956
91 NAREC Jul 1956
92 Royal McBee LGP-30 Sep 1956
93 Madac 414 Oct 1956
94 Underwood Elecom 50 1956
* Soviet Strela (Arrow) 1956
95 UDEC II Mar 1957
96 George I Sep 1957
97 UNIVAC File O Sep 1957
98 Lincoln TXO Aut 1957
99 UNIVAC II Nov 1957
100 IBM 705 II Lat 1957
101 Teleregister Telefile Lat 1957
102 Autonetics Recomp I Lat 1957
103 IBM 608 1957
104 Mistic 1957
105 MANIAC II 1957
106 IBM 609 1957
107 IBM 305 Dec 1957
108 Corbin 1957
109 Burroughs E 103 1957
110 AN/FSQ 7 & 8 1957
111 Alwac 880 1957
* Pegasus 1957
112 UNIVAC File I Jan 1958
113 Linclon CG24 May 1958
114 IBM 709 Aug 1958
115 UNIVAC 1105 Sep 1958
116 Lincoln TX2 Fal 1958
117 Philco 2000-210 Nov 1958
118 Autonetics Recomp II Dec 1958
119 Burroughs 220 Dec 1958
120 Mobidic 1958-1960
121 Philco CXPO 1958
122 Monrobot IX 1958
* NBS PILOT 1958
123 General Electric GE 210 Jun 1959
124 Cyclone Jul 1959
125 IBM 1620 Oct 1959
126 NCR 304 Nov 1959
127 IBM 7090 Nov 1959
128 RCA 501 Nov 1959
129 RW 300 Nov 1959
130 RPC 9000 1959
131 Librascope Air Traffic 1959
132 Jukebox 1959
133 Datamatic 1000 1959
134 CCC Real Time 1959
135 Burroughs E 102 1959
136 Burroughs D 204 1959
137 AN/TYK 6V BASICPAC 1959
138 Control Data Corp CDC 1604 Jan 1960
139 Librascope 3000 Jan 1960
140 UNIVAC Solid State 80/90 I Jan 1960
* Bunker-Ramo 300 Jan 1960
141 Philco 2000-211 Mar 1960
142 UNIVAC Larc May 1960
143 Libratrol XI May 1960
144 Monrobot XI May 1960
145 IBM 7070 Jun 1960
146 CDC 160 Jul 1960
147 IBM 1401 (Mag Tape) Sep 1960
148 AN/FSQ 31 & 32 Sep 1960
149 Merlin Sep 1960
150 IBM 1401 (Card) Sep 1960
151 Mobidic B Fal 1960
152 CDC RPC 4000 Nov 1960
153 Digital Equipment Corp PDP-1 (M.T.) Nov 1960
154 DEC PDP-1 (P.T.) Nov 1960
155 Packard Bell 250 (PT) Dec 1960
156 Honeywell 800 Dec 1960
157 General Mills AD/ECW-57 Dec 1960
* Bunker-Ramo 330 Dec 1960
158 Philco 3000 Lat 1960
159 MANIAC III Lat 1960
160 Sylvania 59400 Lat 1960
161 Target Intercept Lat 1960
162 Westinghouse Airborne 1960
163 RCA 300 1960
164 Mobidic CD & 7A AN/MYK 1960
165 Litton C7000 1960
166 Libratrol 1000 1960
167 GE 312 1960
168 Diana 1960
169 DE 60 Feb 1960
170 Burroughs D107 1960
171 AN/USQ 20 1960
172 AN/TYK 4V COMPAC 1960
* CSC-160 1960
173 General Mills APSAC Jan 1961
174 UNIVAC Solid State 80/90 II Jan 1961
175 Bendix G20 & 21 Feb 1961
176 RCA 301 Feb 1961
177 BRLESC Mar 1961
178 GE 225 Mar 1961
179 CCC-DDP 19 (Card) May 1961
180 CCC-DDP 19 (MT) May 1961
181 IBM Stretch (7030) May 1961
182 NCR 390 May 1961
183 Honeywell 290 Jun 1961
184 Autonetics Recomp III Jun 1961
185 CDC 160A Jul 1961
186 IBM 7080 Aug 1961
187 RW 530 Aug 1961
* Bunker-Ramo 530 Aug 1961
* CDC 924/A Aug 1961
188 IBM 7074 Nov 1961
189 IBM 1410 Nov 1961
190 Honeywell 400 Dec 1961
191 Rice University Dec 1961
192 UNIVAC 490 Dec 1961
* Bunker-Ramo 130 Dec 1961
193 AN/TYK 7V 1961
194 UNIVAC 1206 1961
195 UNIVAC 1000 & 1020 1961
196 ITT Bank Loan Process 1961
197 George II 1961
198 Oklahoma University Ear 1961
199 NCR 315 Jan 1962
200 NCR 315 CRAM Jan 1962
201 UNIVAC File II Jan 1962
202 HRB-Singer SEMA Jan 1962
203 UNIVAC 1004 Feb 1962
* IBM 1710/1720 Feb 1962
* Linc Mar 1962
204 ASI 210 Apr 1962
205 UNIVAC III Jun 1962
206 Burroughs B200 Series-B270 & 280 Jul 1962
* GE 412 Jul 1962
207 Scientific Data Systems SDS 910 Aug 1962
208 SDS 920 Sep 1962
209 DEC PDP-4 Sep 1962
210 UNIVAC 1107 Oct 1962
211 IBM 7094 Oct 1962
* Collins Radio 8400 Nov 1962
212 IBM 7072 Nov 1962
213 IBM 1620 MOD III Dec 1962
214 Burroughs B5000 Dec 1962
215 ASI 420 Dec 1962
216 Burroughs B2000 Series-Card Sys. Dec 1962
* CDC LPG-21 Dec 1962
217 TRW 400 (AN/FSQ 27) 1962
* AN/GYK-3(V) (Honeywell D825) 1962
218 CDC 3600 Jun 1963
219 IBM 7040 Apr 1963
* English Electric KDF 9 Apr 1963
220 IBM 7044 Jul 1963
221 RCA 601 Jan 1963
222 Honeywell 1800 Nov 1963
223 Philco 1000 TRANSAC S1000 Jun 1963
224 Philco 2000-212 Feb 1963
225 Librascope L 3055 Dec 1963
226 H.W.Electronics 15K Feb 1963
227 GE 215 Jun 1963
228 DDP-24 Jun 1963
229 CDC 3600 Jun 1963
* Bunker-Ramo 230 Jun 1963
* Westinghouse 510/580 Jun 1963
* Honeywell 610/620 Aug 1963
230 UNIVAC 1050 Sep 1963
231 UNIVAC 1004 Sep 1963
232 DEC PDP-5 Oct 1963
* Bunker-Ramo 340 Oct 1963
* CSC-636 Oct 1963
233 IBM 1460 Oct 1963
* GE Datanet-30 Oct 1963
234 IBM 1440 Nov 1963
235 Honeywell 1400 Dec 1963
236 ASI 2100 Dec 1963
237 SDS-93C0 Dec 1963
238 Burroughs 273 Jan 1964
239 GE-235 Jan 1964
240 IBM 7010 Jan 1964
* PDS 1020 Feb 1964
* IBM 7700 Mar 1964
241 Burroughs B 160-180 Apr 1964
242 CDC 160G Apr 1964
243 IBM 7094 II Apr 1964
244 CDC 3200 May 1964
245 GE 415 May 1964
* CDC 8090 May 1964
246 UNIVAC 1004 II, III Jun 1964
247 SDS-930 Jun 1964
248 GE 425 Jun 1964
* Beckman Instruments 420 Jun 1964
* Bunker-Ramo 133 Jun 1964
* CDC 8092 Jun 1964
249 GE 205 Jul 1964
250 Honeywell 200 Jul 1964
251 RCA 3301 Jul 1964
252 DEC PDP-6 Jul 1964
* Varian 610 Jul 1964
* Adage Ambilog-200 Aug 1964
* GE 4040 Aug 1964
* Westinghouse Electric 50 Aug 1964
253 CDC 6600 Sep 1964
254 UNIVAC 41B Sep 1964
255 NCR 315-100 Nov 1964
256 GE 635 Nov 1964
257 CDC 3400 Nov 1964
258 Burroughs B5500 Nov 1964
* Digital Electronics 3080 Dec 1964
* DECSYSTEM 10 PDP-6 1964
259 SDS 925 Feb 1965
260 SDS 92 Feb 1965
261 CDC 3100 Feb 1965
262 ASI 6020 Mar 1965
263 DDP-224 Mar 1965
264 DDP-116 Apr 1965
265 GE 625 Apr 1965
266 DEC PDP-8 Apr 1965
267 DEC PDP-7 Apr 1965
268 IBM 360/40 May 1965
269 IBM 360/30 May 1965
* EA 8400 Jun 1965
* GE 4060 Jun 1965
270 NCR 315 RMC Jul 1965
* ASI 6040 Jul 1965
271 UNIVAC 1108 II Aug 1965
272 GE 435 Aug 1965
273 IBM 360/50 Sep 1965
274 IBM 1130 Sep 1965
275 NCR 590 Sep 1965
* Systems Engineering Labs 810-A Sep 1965
* Varian Data Machines 611/612 Sep 1965
276 ASI 6240 Oct 1965
277 UNIVAC 491 & 492 Oct 1965
278 RCA Spectra 70/15 Oct 1965
279 Raytheon 520 Oct 1965
* ASI 6070 Oct 1965
* SCC 660 Oct 1965
280 IBM 360/75 Nov 1965
* Bailey Meter 756 Nov 1965
* Philco 102 (CPS) Nov 1965
* SEL 840 Nov 1965
* Varian 620 Nov 1965
281 Honeywell 2200 Dec 1965
282 CDC 3800 Dec 1965
283 RCA Spectra 70/25 Dec 1965
284 Friden 6010 Jan 1966
285 CDC 6400 Jan 1966
286 DDP-124 Jan 1966
287 Honeywell 1200 Jan 1966
288 IBM 360/20 Jan 1966
289 UNIVAC 1005 II, III Feb 1966
290 UNIVAC 1005 I Feb 1966
291 Honeywell 120 Feb 1966
* ASI 6050 Feb 1966
* Honeywell H-21 Feb 1966
* IBM 1800 Feb 1966
292 IBM 360/65 Mar 1966
293 UNIVAC 494 Mar 1966
294 SDS 940 Apr 1966
* CDC 1700 May 1966
* SCC 670 May 1966
* CCD 516 Jun 1966
295 RCA Spectra 70/55 Jul 1966
296 RCA Spectra 70/45 Jul 1966
297 RCA Spectra 70/35 Jul 1966
* GE 645 Jul 1966
* SEL 810-A Aug 1966
* SEL 840-A Aug 1966
298 Philco 200-213 Oct 1966
299 IBM 360/44 Oct 1966
* Data Mate ECP-18 Nov 1966
* Hewlitt-Packard 2116-A Nov 1966
* GE 4050 Dec 1966
* CDC 6416 1966
300 Honeywell 4200 May 1967
301 SDS Sigma 7 Dec 1966
302 DEC PDP-8/S Linc-8 Sep 1966
303 DEC PDP-9 Dec 1966
* Business Information Technology 80 Dec 1966
* SCC 650 1966
304 SDS Sigma 2 Jan 1967
305 Burroughs B 2500 Feb 1967
309 Burroughs B 6500 Feb 1967
* GE 4020 Feb 1967
306 Burroughs B 3500 May 1967
* SCC IC6000 May 1967
* Interdata 3 May 1967
307 UNIVAC 9300 Jun 1967
308 UNIVAC 9200 Jun 1967
* IBM 1401-H Jun 1967
* Electronics Assoicates, Inc 640 Jun 1967
* Xerox Sigma 5 Aug 1967
310 CDC 3500 Sep 1967
* Westinghouse 250 (S-2) Sep 1967
* Digital Electronics 3080-C Oct 1967
* ASI 6130 Oct 1967
* SEL 840-MP Oct 1967
* Raytheon Computer 703 Oct 1967
* IBM 360/90 Series Nov 1967
* HP 2115-A Nov 1967
* Honeywell 125 Dec 1967
* DECSYSTEM 10 KA10 1967
* DEC 20 ????
* AGU (Apollo CM guidance computer) ????
* (Apollo LM computer) ????
* IBM (Saturn V IMU computer) ????
* General Automation SPC-8 Jan 1968
* Honeywell 1648 Jun 1968
* Computer Automation 808 Jun 1968
* Motorola Instrumentations MDP-1000 Jun 1968
* Interdata 2 Jul 1968
* Redcor RC-70 Jul 1968
* Honeywell 1250 Aug 1968
* Interdata 4 Aug 1968
* Honeywell 110 Sep 1968
* NCR Century 100 Sep 1968
* SCC IC4000 Sep 1968
* HP 2116-A Sep 1968
* Varian 520 1 Sep 1968
* IBM 360/25 Oct 1968
* HP 2114-A Oct 1968
* RCA Spectra 70/46 Nov 1968
* Burroughs B500 Nov 1968
* DEC PDP-9/L Nov 1968
* HP 2000-A Nov 1968
* Honeywell 632 Dec 1968
* Bailey Meter 855 Dec 1968
* Computer Automation 816 Dec 1968
* Dynamic Research DRC-44 Dec 1968
* Honeywell CCD 416 Dec 1968
* SEL 810-B Dec 1968
* DEC PDP-8/I Apr 1968
* DEC PDP-8/L Nov 1968
* CDC 7600 Jan 1969
* Interdata 15 Jan 1969
* Micro Systems 800 Jan 1969
* Micro Systems 810 Jan 1969
* Honeywell 8200 Feb 1969
* Data General Nova Feb 1969
* GE 105 Mar 1969
* Lockheed Electronics MAC-16 Mar 1969
* Raytheon Computer 704 Mar 1969
* Sanders 200 Mar 1969
* Burroughs B8500 Apr 1969
* DEC PDP-12 Apr 1969
* GE 30 Apr 1969
* SCC 4700 Apr 1969
* UNIVAC 9400 May 1969
* Data Craft 6024-1 May 1969
* Raytheon Computer 706 May 1969
* SCC DCT-132 May 1969
* Varian Data R620 i May 1969
* GE 615 Jun 1969
* NCR Century 200 Jun 1969
* SCC IC7000 Jun 1969
* Burroughs B6500 Jul 1969
* Computer Automation 208 Jul 1969
* General Automation GA-18/20 Jul 1969
* Honeywell CCD 316 Jul 1969
* Xerox Data CE-16 Jul 1969
* Sprias Systems 65 Aug 1969
* Westinghouse Electric 2000 Aug 1969
* Tempo Computers 1/1-A Sep 1969
* Xerox Data CF-16 Sep 1969
* IBM 360/85 Oct 1969
* CDC 6700 Oct 1969
* Data Mate DM-16 Oct 1969
* GE 58 Nov 1969
* Computer Logic CLS-18 Nov 1969
* HP 2114-B Nov 1969
* SCC DCT-32 Nov 1969
* UNIVAC 1106 Dec 1969
* Xerox Sigma-3 Dec 1969
* Business Information Technology 483 Dec 1969
* Micro Systems 812 Dec 1969
* CDC 7600 1969
* General Automation SPC-12 1969
* U. of Illinois/ILLIAC IV Ear 1970
* IBM System/3 Jan 1970
* GE 120 Jan 1970
* DEC/PDP-15 Jan 1970
* GRI Computer 909 Jan 1970
* Recor RC-77 Jan 1970
* Honeywell 3200 Feb 1970
* Rolm 1601 Feb 1970
* DEC/PDP-11/20 Apr 1970
* Data General Super Nova Apr 1970
* Viatron 2140 Apr 1970
* Viatron 2150 Apr 1970
* SEL 86 May 1970
* Computer Automation 216 Jul 1970
* RCA Spectra 70/60 Sep 1970
* Mini Comp Multi-Term Sep 1970
* SEL 88 Nov 1970
* GE 53 1970
* Clary-Datacomp 404 1970
* Data Craft 6024-1 1970
* ASI 6120 1970
* RCA Spectra 70/61 Feb 1971
* IBM 360/195 (Was this ever delivered?) Mar 1971
* GE 655 Mar 1971
* DEC PDP-8/E Mar 1971
* Honeywell 6045 ????
* IBM 370/155 Aft 1971
* IBM 370/165 Aft 1971
* IBM 370/145 Aft 1971
* IBM 370/168 Aft 1971
* DEC PDP-8/M Jun 1972
* DEC PDP-11/05 Jun 1972
* DEC PDP-11/45 Jun 1972
* DEC PDP 11/45 (Fl point and mem man) 1972
DECSYSTEM 10 KI10 1972
* DEC PDP-8/M Jun 1972
* DEC PDP-11/05 Jun 1972
* DEC PDP-11/45 Jun 1972
* DEC PDP-11/40 Jan 1973
* Unidata 7720 Jan 1974
* DEC PDP-11/40 Jan 1973
* Unidata 7720 Jan 1974
* Burroughs ILLIAC IV 1974
* Naked Mini LSI 1 1974
* Naked Mini LSI 2 1974
* Honeywell 60 1974
* CDC STAR-100 1974
* Texas Instruments ASC 1974
* Alphamicro 1000 A ????
* HP 9000/730 ????
* Goodyear Aerospace STARAN 1974
* DEC PDP-8/A Jan 1975
* MITS Altair 8800 (first micro kit) Jan 1975
* DEC PDP-11/70 Mar 1975
* MITS Altair 680b ????
* Osbourne 1 ????
* DEC PDP-11/03 Jun 1975
* DEC PDP-11/04 Sep 1975
* IBM 5100 1975
* IBM System 32 1975
* DECSYSTEM 10 KL10 1975
* AN/UYK-44 ????
* Prime 500 bef 1982
* Prime 550 ????
* AN/AYK-14 ????
* DEC PDP-11/34 Mar 1976
* DEC PDP-11/55 Jun 1976
----------------------------------------------------------------

This list is based two articles by Dr. Kenneth E. Knight in DATAMATION: "Changes in Computer Performance", Sept. 1966 and "Evolving Computer Performance 1963-1967", Jan. 1968.

His study evaluated cost vs performance and is not necessarily meant to be a history of the computer.

His criteria for inclusion to the list were:

1. General purpose digital computers;
2. One configuration chosen of memory size, IO, arithmetic and control;
3. Important modifications affecting performance added at a later date considered a separate computer.

AFCno refers to a serial number which will be assigned when additions to the list have ceased. For now an (*) will denote a machine not on the Knight list.

KEKno refers to the serial number assigned to each computer type by Dr. Knight.

The dates of introduction are defined as that when the completed computer passed a minimal acceptance test.

I have added some which may or may not fit Knight's criteria or were unknown to him. I have attempted to continue the list past 1967.

Thanks for additions and corrections to Tony Duell (aduell@isis.cs.du.edu).

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Bruce P. Watson | bwatson@isis.cs.du.edu or wats@scicom.Alphacdc.com

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